H is for hormones!

Hormones are the main messengers of the body. They tell the body what to do, how to do it and when. It could be a message that boosts up your energy so you can meet that deadline at work, one that tells your body to release an egg, or one that gets you in the mood for love.  Hormones link one system to another and permit parts of the body to communicate with one another. One hormone greatly impacts another and hormones are in delicate balance.  Once you get to the root cause and fix hormone related problems, health can be dramatically improved.

In this post we’ll go through each hormone, their roles, signs of deficiency or excess and a few treatment options!

Hormones related

Hormones are intricately related.


Our first hormone, cortisol, comes from the adrenal glands and is essential for many metabolic and immune functions. It’s the hormone our body uses to deal with stress and can be chronically elevated due to physical, psychological, chemical or environmental stress.   One of the first things I do with every patient is assess their cortisol.  Are you someone whose tired in the morning and has a tough time getting going? Do you get wired at night if you stay up past 10pm? Are you emotionally unstable if you don’t keep your blood sugar controlled with regular meals? Having a tough time losing weight? Suffer from insomnia? These are all signs that your cortisol is out of wack. Naturopathic doctors assess your cortisol two ways and both are important.

Wired and tired

Firstly, we collect urine for 24 hrs to assess total cortisol and its metabolites in your urine.  This tells us if your cortisol is way to high or too low.

Second, we assess the pattern of cortisol through-out the day.  Patients take a salivary sample of cortisol 4 times a day. Saliva is actually a very useful indicator of health since it contains free and therefore active hormones, as compared to hormones in the blood which are bound to receptors.

Normal depicted in green

Normal depicted in green

Cortisol is suppose to be higher in the morning when you wake and then decrease to its lowest concentration at night.

Signs of elevated cortisol

  • Food allergies, environmental sensitivities, muscle and skin breakdown, PMS, diabetes, obesity, mood disorders, chronic fatigue, infertility, bone loss, high estrogen, low progesterone, low growth hormone, aging due to lower levels of the anti-aging hormone DHEA, high blood pressure and poor memory.

If you think you may be a candidate for adrenal testing, take the test below.


What can you do?:

  • Yoga/meditation/stress reduction
  • B vitamins, vitamin C
  • Rhodiola, ginseng, ashwaghanda to build you up
  • Magnesium and/or phosphatidyl serine to bring you back down at night.


DHEA increases muscle, improves immune function, is associated with anti-aging and is the precursor to all other hormones, especially testosterone and estrogen. DHEA levels peak in our early twenties,  and then, unfortunately decrease from then on.  High levels of cortisol greatly deplete DHEA.

Symptoms of DHEA deficiency

  • Fatigue, loss of stamina, low sex drive, memory decline, muscle weakness/wasting, loss of bone mass and sleep problems to name a few.

What can you do?:

  • DHEA is a fantastic hormone, but currently its illegal for canadians to prescribe. It’s readily available in the states as an over the counter prescription.
  • Try increasing levels naturally with magnesium, Relora and Puncture Vine (Tribulus)

Thyroid hormone

Thyroid function and adrenal function go hand in hand. Cortisol greatly impacts how the thyroid functions and  is one of the main causes of hypothyroidism. The thyroid sits in the throat and releases active thyroid hormones (T4 which converts to T3) in response to TSH with help from its percursors tyrosine, selenium and iodine.  The thyroid controls metabolism, energy, bone turnover and heat regulation among many other things.  Up to 90% of your thyroid hormone is bound in the blood and only a small amount circulates as free physiological T4 and T3.  It’s important to measure these active free hormone levels, in saliva or in the blood.  Ask for a free T3 and T4 if your doctor suspects you have hyper or hypothyroid issues, don’t settle for a TSH only.

You may be suffering from an under-active thyroid if you have:

  • A goiter, or swollen thyroid, anemia, a metal taste, anxiety, fatigue, constipation, cracking/dry skin, depression, edema, hair loss, palpitations, low body temperature, cold extremities, a slow pulse and weight gain.
The thyroid affects weight gain and loss.

The thyroid affects weight gain and loss.

What can you do?:

  • Avoid goitrogens, which deplete iodine: turnips, cabbage, mustard, soy, peanuts, pine nuts, millet
  • Doctors often prescribe Synthroid which contains T4. Some people will benefit form T4, but most will not be able to convert T4 to T3 and will continue to suffer with symptoms.
  • I prefer dessicated thyroid hormone which contains bioidentical T4 and T3.
  • Thyroid precursors: Selenium, Iodine , zinc, B-vitamins and Tyrosine
  • Animal glandulars (Whole thyroid gland from another animal)
  • Bladder wrack (Fucus versiuclosus)


Estrogens, cortisol and thyroid hormone greatly affect one another.  Elevated cortisol, leads to high estrogen and when estrogen is high, hypothyroidism commonly occurs. There are three main forms of estrogen in the body: Estrone (E1), Estradiol (E2) and Estriol (E3). Each has different degrees of interaction with estrogen receptors making them relatively strong or weak estrogens.  Estrone is formed in the liver from precursor hormones such as androgens, DHEA and progesterone. Estrone remains high after menopause since it isn’t synthesized in the ovaries, is a strong estrogen and is often called “bad” estrogen since one of its metabolites is associated with increased rates of cancer.  Estradiol is produced by the ovaries from cholesterol, its main role is to build the uterine lining during the second half of the menstrual cycle.  It is also a relatively strong estrogen. Finally, estriol is a weaker estrogen, is secreted in high amounts during pregnancy to protect the fetus from estradiol and does not cause abnormal cell growth in the breasts and uterus and thus is not linked with cancer risk. Estrogen becomes deficient during menopause when the ovaries are no longer capable of producing estrogen. There is however some estrogen left from adrenal production, and fat storage

Signs of estrogen deficiency include:

  • Brain fog, painful intercourse, urinary tract infections, vaginal dryness, night sweats and thinning of the vaginal wall.

What can you do?:

  • Many herbs are helpful in menopausal symptoms that are due to low estrogen: Black cohosh, Chaste berry, Red clover, Sage and Alfafa.
  • Supplementing estrogen is very popular after menopause, however its imperative that the RIGHT estrogen is given in a safe form. I recommend topical estrogen only and insist patients are on supplements which help prevent estrogen conversion into cancer causing metabolites.
  • Furthermore I assess liver function in these patients prior to beginning supplement and carefully monitor serum levels of estradiol once supplementation has begun.
  • I like Biest, a combination of estriol (80%) and estradiol (20%) applied topically.


Too much estrogen can cause several issues in both women and men. For starters its associated with cancer risk, can generate endometriosis, fibroids, obesity, hypothyroid, lumpy breasts, heavy periods and more. One of the main culprits associated with high estrogen are something called xenoestrogens.  These are estrogen mimickers that wreak havoc on your entire endocrine system.

Common sources include:

  1. pesticides
  2. beef
  3. dairy
  4. cosmetics (especially parabens)
  5. plastic
  6. cleaning chemicals
  7. fabric softeners
  8. farmed fish
  9. hair dye

You may have high estrogen if you experience:

  • Acne, anemia, depression, endometriosis, fatigue, fluid retention, irritability, PMS, weight gain, irregular/long or short periods.

What can you do?:

  • Avoid xenoestrogens
  • Consume brassica rich foods like broccoli or foods that are rich in DIM or indole 3-carbonate (I3C).
  • Supplement with calcium d glucarate.


There are receptors for progesterone in the brain, skin, thyroid, blood vessels, breasts, bone and more. Although its main roles are to shed the uterine lining during menses and maintain the placenta during pregnancy, the relative levels of progesterone in the body compared to estrogen is extremely important for good health. Progesterone deficiencies are very common.  This is because progesterone is used to synthesize cortisol.  Given our stressful lifestyles many of us are using progesterone to make cortisol.

Symptoms of low progesterone include:  

  • Anxiety, insomnia, abdominal fat, depression, a poor ability to deal with stress, headaches and miscarriages.

What can you do?:

  • Protect your progesterone with Dong Quai and Turmeric
  • Detoxify and clear estrogen with I3C, DIM, calcium-d glucarate and liver support.
  • Another great option is either oral or topical bioidentical progesterone. I like prometrium.



Important for both males and females, testosterone builds muscle, affects skin health/tone, bone health, heart function and sex drive.

Low levels of testosterone have been linked with:

  • Depression, obesity, osteoporosis, low libido, skin aging and heart disease.

What can you do?:

  • Avoid  pesticides, plastics and xenoestrogens
  • Chill out! When the body needs more cortisol less testosterone is made from their common precursor (cholesterol). When this happens it is known as pregnenolone steal.
  • Increase zinc and fiber
  • Inhibit testosterone conversion to estrogen with aromatase inhibitors like resveratrol, chamomile, passionflower and red clover.
  • Enhance testosterone with Tribulus terrestis, Maca root and Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

Final thoughts

I recommend all patients have a complete hormone work-up if they aren’t experiencing optimal health.  A salivary panel can assess estrogen, testosterone, DHEA, progesterone and cortisol.  Once the results are in, dietary, supplement, botanical and pharmaceutical recommendations will be tailored to you to give you back your life and your health.

Biodentical replacement (BHRT) and balancing hormonal health are an important part of a naturopathic practice.

We are living a lot longer these days and quality of life needs to be addressed.  I think the best way to ensure we are living both longer and happier lives is to address endocrine health.

Bet these guys are on DHEA and have cortisol under control!

Bet these guys are on DHEA and have cortisol under control!


G is for Gastrointestinal health!

We’ve all experienced the discomfort of a stomach ache, most of us have experienced the pain of crampy diarrhea or constipation and many experience acid reflux and indigestion.


“Number 2” as I liked to call it when I was a child is one of the most important bodily functions. It eliminates a great deal of the waste we accumulate through-out the day but our digestive tract is certainly more than that finished product that exits the large intestine and the colon. Our digestion spans from mouth to anus and each part of the journey food takes throughout the body is complex and can lead to disease. Our intestines don’t just assure we get nutrients from our food, but also makes up 80-90% of our immune system and is the site where roughly 70-80% of our neurotransmitters are synthesized.

In this post I’ll touch on how the body digests and eliminates food and I’ll describe what I think are the most important supplements and interventions for a healthy digestive system, such as:

  1. Probiotics
  2. Prebiotics
  3. Fiber
  4. Essential fats
  5. Water/hydration
  6. Eliminating food intolerances and allergies
  7. Stress relief

forkOne of my favorite naturopathic quotes is “we dig our graves with our knives and forks”.

Digestion is a very important determinant of health and what we consume affcets the make-up, functioning and effectiveness of every organ and cell in our body.

The mouth

Food is first broken down with physical energy from our teeth, and our saliva which contains enzymes that start to break down carbohydrates and fats.  Chewing is a KEY part of digestion.  When the food is left in chunks that are bigger than desired, the stomach needs to work harder to break them down and the small intestine will have a very difficult time getting food into the molecular sizes needed for absorption.  Something as simple as not chewing can cause malabsorption, malnutrition, food sensitivities, inflammation of the intestinal tract and even cancer.  Once you’ve chewed your food (might I suggest a good 10 chews at least per bite) the swallowed food enters the esophagus and passes into the stomach.


The stomach is a strictly controlled environment with a very acidic/low ph.  This is necessary to breakdown the molecular structure of proteins and begin to digest them down into smaller absorbable peptides and amino acids.   I often see patients on ant-acids, proton pump inhibitors or h2 blockers, who are unable to digest their food. This leads to bloating, distention, malabsorption and a deficiency of several minerals and vitamins like iron, B12, magnesium and calcium.  What your medical doctor may not tell you is that the sphincter that keeps your stomach from pushing bits of acid food back up into your esophagus needs an acidic environment or low ph to function properly. Sometimes LOW, not elevated acid is the cause of heart burn! Although reflux needs to be managed to reduce risk of ulcers, consider seeing your naturopathic doctor for natural remedies that can alleviate the discomfort without having a massive tole on your digestion (I’ve had great success with this).

Small intestine-absorptionMajor_digestive_enzymes

Once the stomach has churned and burned our food it enters the small intestine where food is absorbed into our blood so that it can heal and nurture every cell in our body. The pancreas and the gall bladder are very important players in the further breakdown of food and secrete enzymes required to finish digestion. Unfortunately, many of us have intestinal damage from synthetic foods, food intolerances and stress, this causes a deficiency of enzymes. Taking a digestive enzyme with food can help relieve the burden of an inefficient digestive system and can even relieve symptoms of pain, bloating, gas and indigestion.

The colon

The colon, also known as the large intestine is the last leg of our journey. It’s an amazing environment that is very dependent on proper bacteria content.  Bacteria are a friend but also a foe. Naturopathic doctors talk a lot about natural healthy flora (bugs) vs. unhealthy ones, like candida.  It’s crucial to build up enough good healthy bacteria to allow proper hormone function, serotonin synthesis and immune function.

Probiotics are found in: Yogurt, Kombucha tea, Miso, Soy milk, Sauerkraut and Kimichi.  Whereas prebiotics can be found in :Raw chicory root, raw oats, raw dandelion greens and unrefined barley.



Elimination, a.k.a poop: 

Numero deux is made up of fiber, un-digestible components of food and bacteria. Your body loves fiber! It uses it to bulk stool, which helps with elimination, and even uses fiber to regulate blood sugar control. Another crucial component to elimination is enough water. If you’re constipated the top things to try are:

  1. Water
  2. Fiber
  3. Activity, moderate activity helps with peristalsis and gets things moving!
  4. Food elimination
  5. Herbs that stimulate peristalsis (although this can lead to dependence and a decrease in natural movement)

If you’re on the other end of the spectrum and are experiencing diarrhea or loose stools, see your Naturopathic doctor for food sensitivity testing (a blood or electrodermal test), make sure to replenish electrolytes like sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium and consider raspberry or black tea to help dry up the stool.

Some diseases associated with poor intestinal health:

That’s the end of journey down gastrointesinal way. Poor digestive health is linked to these and many other disease:

  1. Cancer
  2. Crohn’s/ulcerative colitis
  3. IBS and depresison
  4. Arthritis
  5. Low energy/chronic fatigue/anemia
  6. Poor immune health

If you have digestive complaints see your naturopathic doctor for a program tailored to your specific needs which is likely to include one or more of the following:

  1. Fish oil
  2. Betaine acid/Vinegar
  3. Food sensitivity testing
  4. Digestive enzymes
  5. Food hygiene advise
  6. Counseling
  7. Probiotics
  8. Fiber
  9. Botanicals/Herbs like fennel. slippery elm, ginger and chamomile
    • Stimulate digestion
    • Sooth irritation
    • Promote healing of the intestinal lining
    • Generate relaxation so the body can rest and digest
  10. Stress relief! The body must be in parasympathetic or a relaxed state for digestion to occur.
Rest & Digest vs. Stress

Rest & Digest vs. Stress


If you want to know more, or are suffering from digestive complaints send me a message or schedule an appointment!!


F is for fatty acid part 4: DHA, the membrane fat!

H to the izz-O,   D to the HA.  That’s the anthem get’cha damn hands up!

I’d like to introduce you to the super cool and fabulous fatty acid, DHA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has an amazingly complex structure and because of this; very significantly alters the physiology of the body.  DHA is the longest and most unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid and has several different applications compared to EPA.



DHA has an extremely kinky chain and is the omega-3 with the most double bonds lending to its special role in dynamic, fast-acting cells.

Dynamic quick acting muscles like the flight muscles in hummingbirds have extremely high levels of DHA but not their leg muscles while


Pretty flutter wings full of DHA

the muscles found in the rattle of a rattle snake are very high in DHA whereas the stomach muscle has very little.

DHA containing rattle

Rattle containing DHA

Areas of the body with high DHA content

DHA is found in its highest concentrations in the membranes of brain cells, our eyes, sperm, and the heart, making it the fatty acid for neural health, cardiovascular health and issues surrounding fertility and birth

Areas of the body that benefit most from D to the HA

Areas of the body that benefit most from DHA

DHA’s ability to flip-flop between hundreds of different shapes, billions of times per second, enables nerve cells to send their rapid signals, allows the heart to contract and integrate its beat and permits the eye to see and interpret the world around us.

DHA is of most benefit in:

            1. Heart health
            2. Neural health and cognition
            3. Pregnancy and child development

DHA for heart health

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in North America. Several studies support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in heart disease.  The heart health benefits of fish oils are so well supported in the literature that even health canada has approved claims for DHA and EPA in support of heart health.


DHA + EPA are great for the heart!

DHA + EPA are great for the heart!

DHA is found in large concentrations in the heart (more so then EPA).  Specifically, the kinky and flexible DHA is very involved in proper membrane function in the heart and regulates heart rate by modulating how and when potassium and sodium ions cross the cardiac membrane.  Thousands of studies have been done to assess the heart health benefits of omega-3s and research has revealed that DHA combined with EPA effectively decreases triglycerides, raise good (HDL) cholesterol, lower heart rate, prevent arrhythmias, and decrease blood pressure. All of these effects are extremely beneficial for the heart.  Studies have even shown that omega-3 supplementation with statin administration lowers cholesterol and reduces negative effects better then statins alone!

Most importantly adequate levels of DHA and EPA have been shown to prevent and reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, ischemic event, atherosclerosis and death from a cardiac event.

DHA for cognitive health

The human brain is 90% fat and a good 30-50% of those are omega-3s. In fact, it has been speculated that the development of the large human brain and our evolution as human race depended on early man consuming a rich source of DHA.  The availability of DHA is literally a limiting factor in the evolution of the brain and research suggests that high levels of DHA optimize neural function.  Clinical research has demonstrated that DHA supplementation is effective for preventing cognitive decline in early stage memory decline and supplementation throughout adulthood with a high DHA formula has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.  Adequate levels of omega-3 reduce risk of dementia by as much as 67%.  DHA also enhances cognition in healthy adults and teens as well.  It has been shown to improve reaction time, concentration, memory and possibly sudoku skillz? (j j/k).

DHA is prevents dementia

DHA is prevents dementia

DHA for pregnancy and fetal health


DHA supplementation is required during pregnancy

Adequate levels of omega-3 are associated with enhanced fertility.  They reduce the risk of miscarriage and have been shown to increase the likelihood of becoming pregnant.

Once pregnant, omega-3 intake during pregnancy and lactation modulate the growth, development, and health of infants. DHA is found in large concentrations in the brain and eyes of mom and her baby too! WIthout DHA, fetal development is severely compromised.  Adequate maternal intakes of DHA are very important for establishing optimal health of infants.  Birth outcomes such as intelligence, eye hand co-ordination and athleticism are enhanced in mothers with higher DHA status.  Adequate DHA during pregnancy also creates a longer gestation time, reduces the risk of preterm birth and leads to higher birth weight and length which reduces the risk of children that are small for gestational age.

Maintaining levels of DHA and EPA during infancy and breast-feeding is just as crucial.  Higher omega-3 intake throughout lactation leads to more mature and favorable behaviors in infants and children, such as: accelerated attentional functions; improved cognitive function; greater visual acuity; and improved immune responses, among other super kid benefits.

Two of the best ways to get DHA are algae oil and calamari oil.  My favorite is Ascenta’s NutraSea DHA.  I think its one of the world’s most sustainable high DHA omega-3s


High DHA omega-3 supplements are best for pregnant and lactating women (or women trying to conceive), seniors, individuals looking to maximize brain health and those who are at increased risk for heart disease.

DHA is the best fatty acid for areas where membrane functioning is crucial like the heart, the eye and the brain.

Finally since calamari (in NutraSea DHA) and algae oil (in NutraVeg) are high in DHA and more sustainable then fish, high DHA fish oil is also a great choice for individuals looking to a choose a more sustainable marine source of omega-3.


F is for fatty acid!

My nick name at school, and pretty much in life, is miss fatty acid.

being an expert on oils extracted from fish and marine life isn’t really that glamorous……. but til death do us part; I live, eat, breathe and chug fish oil.

I owe a lot to Ascenta Health and their lovely essential fatty acids. It’s my employer, where many of my good friends work, my research for them inspired my career choice, and I get to help people every time I recommend an omega-3, or provide the research indicated for a specific medical or health concern.

F is for fatty acid

The letter F is gonna be a three parter. What can I say I’m obsessed with essential fats. We’ll get to G eventually and it’ll be Gggggreat

  1. In this first post I’ll describe what an essential fat is
    • who and what are the omega-3s and the omega-6s
  2. The second post will describe what omega-3s do in our body, how they modulate human physiology.
    • What is chronic inflammation? How do EFAs modulate the immune system
  3. The last and third post will describe the clinical indications for omega-3s!
    • What to take, how much and which product to choose for the most common diseases and conditions.

What are essential fatty acids (EFAs)

Essential fats are just that: Essential.  Humans don’t have the genes required to produce the enzymes required to make omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids from other fatty precursors, making it “essential” that they be consumed in our diet. Every single omega- or omega-6 fat in our body was consumed from our diet.  Throughout the course of history, both omega-3 and omega-6 were consumed in relatively similar quantities.

Historically we ate:                                                         Today we eat:

  • Berries, nuts, seeds, fish, whole foods                       Processed foods, grains, vegetable oils, grain fed meat
  • Ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 WAS 1:1 or 1:2         Ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 is NOW 1: 25 or 1:40

Our food builds our cells

You really are what you eat. If you eat a lot of omega-6 fatty acids and few omega-3s from fish;  then every cell in your body will have more omega-6s then omega-3s as well.

 Why supplement?

Based on a Harvard Medical study a deficiency of omega-3 was the 6th largest cause of preventable death in the US.

  1. Tobacco smoking       467,000                   5. High dietary salt                               102,000
  2. High blood pressure   395,000                   6. Low dietary omega-3 fatty acids     84,000
  3. Overweight-obesity     216,000                   7. High dietary trans fatty acids           82,000
  4. Physical inactivity        191,000

Over the past few decades  its become clear that omega-3s are literally a cure ALL!!

Here’s a challenge: Google any medical condition or issue you can think of + omega-3, and I guarantee you’ll get a hit and that omega-3s are beneficial. One of the reasons I love omegas such much is that they are super naturopathic, because they don’t actually “treat” disease; instead they modify the body’s internal biochemistry allowing for a healthier response to mitigate or prevent disease.

Whats cool is that very few pharmaceutical drugs achieve the same level of efficiency and none provide the range of benefits and safety

Sources of short and long chain essential fatty acids

Short chain:


  • Short chain omega-3 fatty acids (with less carbons) include alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA)
  • ALA is most commonly known to occur in flax, but is also found in hemp, chia, rapeseed & soy.
  • SDA is found in echium, black currant and hemp
  • Pretty much all clinical research has been done with the long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.

Short and long chain EFAs

Conversion to EPA and DHA from ALA is very inefficient in humans. Studies show on average that 3.5% of ALA converts to EPA and less then 1% of ALA converts to DHA

Short chain conversion to long chain fatty acid

Delta 6 desaturase is the limiting enzyme in conversion from ALA to EPA and is inhibited by aging, alcohol, xenoestrogens, cholesterol, saturated fat, sugar, low levels of Mg, Zn, B6 & C among many other things including high levels of dietary LA, since it too requires delta 6 for conversion.
see the following article I wrote a few years back if you’re interested in learning more:
Thankfully, SDA found in echium converts much more effectively to EPA–> studies in humans show it converts about 35% to EPA. Conversion to EPA bypasses the rate limiting delta 6 desaturase making SDA much more bioavailable
  • The short chain omega-6 linoleic acid is found in great abundance in our diet and occurs in safflower, evening primrose, grape seed, sunflower, corn, hemp, wheat germ, cottonseed, soybean, walnut, sesame, argan, peanut, canola, oilve & cocunut oil.  It is also found in almonds, peanuts, pistachios, egg yolks, chicken fat etc.

Long chain fatty acids


  • Long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in marine life.  Commonly fish, squid, krill, seals etc
  • It is important to select a marine oil that is ethically sourced, strictly controlled by the environment and the smaller the animal the better since big fish eat little fish and via bio-accumulation, larger species will have higher levels of mercury, lead, pesticides and other chemicals.


  • Arachidonic acid is the BAD guy. He’s the one wreaking havoc on your health, causing imbalance and smoldering inflammation. It’s found in many parts of our diet including peanuts and grain fed meat and readily converts from LA its short chain precursor.
  • Gamma linoleic acid another long chain omega-6 fatty acid is gaining a lot of popularity as a useful essential fat to supplement along with fish oil. Ironically research has been around for decades on its usefulness in hormones, menopause, skin and joint health.
  • Gamma linoleic acid can be found most commonly in borage oil and evening primrose oil but it also occurs in hemp, chia, black currant and echium as well.
  • One concern with supplementing GLA is that it can convert to the inflammatory arachidonic acid. In clinical and in vitro research conversion to AA is inhibited by EPA.

Bioavailibility of long chain omega-3 fatty acids

  • Another important consideration is bioavailibility